The ear

Watch the video to see how sound waves travel through the three stages of the ear. You can read about each stage of the ear below.

Stage 1 – the outer ear

The outer ear collects sound waves and directs them into the ear canal, where they are amplified by the canal’s funnel-like shape and channeled on to the eardrum.

Stage 2 – the middle ear

The sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate, transmitting the sound to the three tiny bones in the middle ear. These bones are commonly referred to as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, and they connect the eardrum to a membrane between the middle and inner ear, known as the ‘oval window’. The movement of the ‘oval window’ transmits the pressure waves of sound to the inner ear.

Stage 3 – the inner ear

The inner ear is fluid-filled and consists of the spiral-shaped “cochlea”. The passageways of the cochlea are lined with 20,000 microscopic hair cells that convert sound vibrations into nerve impulses. These impulses are then sent to the brain, which interprets the impulses as meaningful sounds.